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PRED-097PRED-097,SSNI-668SSNI-668

# PRED-097PRED-097,SSNI-668SSNI-668

Home Mechanics Gases and liquids
Gases and liquids ### How does a centrifugal pump work?

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Centrifugal pumps have a wide range of applications where the pressure increase is caused by centrifugal forces. In this article you will learn more about how a centrifugal pump works. This article...

### Pressure head and head loss

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Learn more about the difference between elevation head, pressure head, friction head (head loss) and total static head of a piping system in this article. This article provides answers to the following...

### Moody chart (diagram)

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The Moody diagram is a chart showing the Darcy friction factor of a pipe as a function of the Reynolds number for selected roughnesses of the pipe wall. Learn more about...

### Pressure loss in pipe systems (Darcy friction factor)

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Pressure losses in pipes are caused by internal friction of the fluid (viscosity) and friction between fluid and wall. Pressure losses also occur in components. Learn more about it in this...

### Magnus effect

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The Magnus effect refers to the lateral force acting on rotating round bodies in a flow! Learn more about it in this article. This article provides answers to the following questions, among...

### Exercises with solutions based on the Bernoulli equation

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In this article exercises with solutions based on the Bernoulli equation are given. Bernoulli equation The Bernoulli equation is based on the conservation of energy of flowing fluids. The derivation of this equation...

### Venturi effect

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The Venturi effect describes the decrease of (static) pressure in flowing fluids with increasing flow velocity due to a constricted section. Learn more about it in this article. This article provides answers...

### How does a Prandtl tube work?

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A Prandtl tube is used to measure the dynamic pressure. From this, the flow speed relative to the tube can be determined. Erfahren Sie in diesem Artikel mehr darüber. Learn more...

### Examples and applications of the Venturi effect

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Learn more about examples and technical applications of the Venturi effect in this article. This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How is lift generated on airfoils?Why do doors usually...

### Drag coefficient (friction and pressure drag)

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Drag coefficients are dimensionless similarity parameters for describing the drag of flowed around bodies. Learn more about them in this article. This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What types...

### Flow around spherical bodies (Stokes’ law of friction)

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Stokes' law of friction describes the drag force acting on a spherical body around which a laminar flow passes. Learn more about it in this article. This article provides answers to the...

### Flow separation (boundary layer separation)

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In the case of a boundary layer separation (flow separation), the flow can no longer follow the profile of the body around which it flows and separates turbulently from it. Learn...

### Dimensionless numbers of the boundary layers (Prandtl, Schmidt and Lewis number)

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To describe the heat and mass transport, dimensionless numbers are introduced to describe the processes within the boundary layers. Learn more about this in this article. This article provides answers to the...

### Thermal and concentration boundary layer

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In addition to the hydrodynamic boundary layer, the thermal boundary layer and the concentration boundary layer also have a decisive influence on the entire heat and mass transport in a flow....

### Parasitic drag (skin friction drag & form/pressure drag)

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Drag is the force of resistance that a moving body experiences in a fluid due to frictional and pressure forces. Learn more about it in this article. This article provides answers to...

### Prandtl number

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The Prandtl number is a dimensionless similarity parameter to describe the transport of heat and momentum. Learn more about it in this article. This article provides answers to the following questions, among...

### Lewis number

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The Lewis number is a dimensionless similarity parameter to describe heat and mass transport. Learn more about it in this article. This article provides answers to the following questions, among others What does...

### Schmidt number

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The Schmidt-number is a dimensionless similarity parameter to describe transport of mass and momentum. Learn more about this topic in this article. This article provides answers to the following questions, among others What...

### Calculation of the Nusselt numbers for forced flows over plates and in pipes

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In this article you will find formulas for calculating the local and average Nusselt numbers for forced flows over plates and in pipes with circular cross sections. This article provides answers to...

### Heat transfer coefficient for thermal convection

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The heat transfer coefficient describes the convective heat transfer from a solid to a flowing fluid and vice versa! Learn more about it in this article. This article provides answers to the...

### Hydrodynamic boundary layer

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The hydrodynamic boundary layer of a flow has a decisive influence on heat and mass transport. Learn more about it in this article. This article provides answers to the following questions, among...

### Nusselt number to describe convective heat transfer

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The Nusselt number is a dimensionless similarity parameter to describe convective heat transfer, independent of the size of the system. Learn more about it in this article. This article provides answers to...

### Streamlines, pathlines, streaklines and timelines

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In order to make the flow of fluids "visible", one often uses the model of streamlines, pathlines (trajectories), streaklines or timelines. Learn more about the difference between these lines in this...

### Equation of motion of a fluid on a streamline

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In this article we want to derive the equation of motion of a fluid element on a streamline. For this purpose we describe the equation of motion in the direction of...

### Derivation of the Bernoulli equation

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The Bernoulli equation describes the relationship between static, dynamic and hydrostatic pressure for inviscid and incompressible fluids. Learn more about it in this article. This article provides answers to the following questions,...

### Derivation of Hagen-Poiseuille equation for pipe flows with friction

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The Hagen-Poiseuille equation describes the parabolic velocity profile of frictional, laminar pipe flows of incompressible, Newtonian fluids. Learn more about it in this article. This article provides answers to the following questions,...

### Experimental determination of viscosity (viscometer)

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Viscometry is the experimental determination of the viscosity of liquids and gases with so-called viscometers. Learn more about it in this article. This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What...

### Energetic analysis of the Hagen-Poiseuille law

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The Hagen-Poiseuille equation for describing the parabolic velocity profile of fluids in pipes applies only to long pipes for energy reasons! Learn more about it in this article. This article provides answers...

### Reynolds number (laminar and turbulent flow)

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The Reynolds number is a dimensionless similarity parameter for describing a forced flow, e.g. whether it is an alminar or turbulent flow. Learn more about it in this article. This article provides...

### Viscosity of liquids and gases

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The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of the internal resistance to flow! It is caused by intermolecular forces and transport of momentum within the fluid. Learn more about it...

### Derivation of the barometric formula (adiabatic atmosphere)

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The barometric formula for an adiabatic atmosphere takes into account the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude and the associated effects on air pressure. More information about this and the derivation...

### Discharge of liquids (Torricelli’s law)

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Torricelli's law (Torricelli's theorem) states that the discharge velocity of a liquid equals a free fall of the liquid from the liquid surface to the opening of the tank. This article provides...

### How does a hot air balloon work: Buoyancy in gases

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Buoyant forces act not only in liquids but also in gases. This will be illustrated in the following by the example of a hot air balloon. This article provides answers to the...

### How does a hydraulic jack work: Pascals law

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A hydraulic jack is based on Pascal's law, which states that the pressure in liquids acts equally in all directions. This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What does Pascal's...

### Siphon

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How does a siphon work?What is the maximum height to the apex of the flexible tube that can be covered?Why does a...

### Pressure in liquids (hydrostatic pressure)

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What causes the hydrostatic pressure in liquids?On which variables does the hydrostatic pressure depend?What is the hydrostatic paradox?What are communicating vessels? Introduction In the...

### How do boats float: Buoyancy in liquids

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Buoyancy is the force directed against gravity that an object experiences when submerged in a fluid (liquid or gas). More information on how buoyancy is formed can be found in this...

### Applications and examples of hydrostatic pressure

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: Which properties of the hydrostatic pressure could Pascal demonstrate with his barrel experiment?How does the pressure change with increasing water depth?What are...

### How does a drinking straw work?

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: How does drinking with a straw work from a physical point of view?What role does ambient pressure play?Why is there a maximum...

### Derivation of the barometric formula (isothermal atmosphere)

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The barometric formula describes the decrease of air pressure with increasing altitude. Without the influence of the temperature changes, the air pressure decreases by about 1.2% per 100 meters of altitude....

### Pressure in gases

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What causes the pressure in gases?How is the unit bar converted into the unit Pascal?What is meant by positive pressure, negative pressure...

### Pressure

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This article provides answers to the following questions, among others: What is pressure?In what way does the contact pressure differ from a gas pressure or liquid pressure with regard to the exerted...